おすすめ

My curiosity or interest in TESOL or ELT

・How to teach pronunciation

・How to make elemetary school students to have interest in English

・How to make elemetary school students to like English

・What is the most effective way to use ALT in elemetary school

・How teacher do team teaching in elemetary school

Outline

1. Introduction

1-1 Purpose of this study

1-2 Significance of this study

2. Current situation in team-teaching

2-1 What MEXT says?

3. Research question What teacher should do to make good team-teaching?

4. To make good-team teaching

4-1 Problems of Japanese teacher

4-2 The role of Japanese teachers.

4-3 To make good team teaching

5. Conclusion

5-1 Summary of this research paper

5-2 Further research

6. References

Synthesis Paper

   I read five articles about team teaching. There are three major issues to support my research question.

   The first issue is the problems of JTEs. Akiko, Atsuko, Daniel, Ayako, Kiyotaka and Yuriko (2015, P.79) argued that JTEs have “pure lack of time to meet.” In the article of Frances and Keiko (2018, P.110), “the Japanese teachers are extremely busy.” That is to say, in elementary school, HRTs have to teach not only English but other subjects, therefore, JTEs and ALTs cannot have an opportunity to meet them.

   The second issue is the role of Japanese teachers. Ethel, Hitomi, Harry, Darryl, Joseph and Richard (2009, P.40) said that JTEs “try to act as role models for students”. In the article of Frances and Keiko (2018, P.113), “The Japanese teachers can help with classroom management as well as be good role models for the students.” In addition, Ethel, Hitomi, Harry, Darryl, Joseph and Richard (2009, P.38) argued “HRTs are sometimes foreign learners and can act as role models for the pupils.” To sum up, JTEs and HRTs are Japanese people not native, so they can be the model of non-native English speakers.

   The third issue is to make good team teaching. First, JTEs should train English more. In the article of Akiko, Atsuko, Daniel, Ayako, Kiyotaka and Yuriko (2015, P.79), “JTEs may need to undergo team-teaching training together with ALTs.” For example, “Saitama JATs are supported with training programs”. (Ethel, Hitomi, Harry, Darryl, Joseph and Richard, 2009, P.37) In other words, HRTs and JTEs have to improve their English skill with ALT. Next, teachers should give students different cultures in the class. Frances and Keiko (2018, P.109) argued that “there are numerous advantage of TT, such as encouraging cross-cultural understanding, (Tonks, 2006)” In addition, in the article of Ethel, Hitomi, Harry, Darryl, Joseph and Richard (2009, P.41), teachers should “have adequate cross-cultural understanding” In brief, Teachers want to teach students to cross-cultural understanding. It is important for ALTs to teach cross-cultural understanding, of course.

   In this way, I found three major issues to help my research question. I can observe the perspective of team-teaching.

Annotated Bibliography 5

1. Reference : Chie. O., Perceptions about team teaching: From Assistant Language Teachers and Japanese Teachers of English : Jalt-publications., (1), 473-486.

2. Summary: This paper is about the research for preferences for and frequencies of ALT’s duties. There are some different thoughts, and common thoughts. ALTs think the number of receiving feedback from JTEs is small. They want more feedbacks. On the other hand, JTE think ALT should attend the English teacher’s meetings. JTEs want ALTs to know about the situation in the school. Then, both JTE and ALT think they should make intercultural understanding lessons. Less and Less both of teachers don’t have opportunity to tell intercultural understandings, students don’t. Furthermore, making quizzes, teaching English based on the textbook and so on are ALT’s duties in team teaching on the recognition between JTEs and ALTs.

3. Assessment : This article is useful because this article has items for ALT’s duties. They are what ALT do in the classes. I could not know about the work in detail, but I got some hints. The goal of this article is to discuss improvements of team teaching. The contents of this thesis are so useful.

4. Reflection : I can know about frequency and preference of the ALT’s duties. As a premise, the list of the work is written. This information helps me to know about the effective team teaching ways in elementary school. Ideally, I would know about the way of teaching English, but this article is related to my research question a little.

Annotated Bibliography4

1. Reference : Ethel O., Hitomi S. Harry C., Darryl S., Joseph S. and Richard B., (2009). English education elementary school: Team-teaching approaches, Jalt-publications., (1), 36-42

2. Summary : This paper is about the discussion related to team teaching. ALT can provide amounts of natural, spontaneous English language input and be a rich resource like cultural knowledge. ALT is needed, but if he is absent, JTE can substitute for ALT in the 2TT system. On the other hand, some of HRTs are concern about teaching in English. They feel it is difficult to communicate with ALT. JTE should become the bridge between ALT and HRT. Before becoming an elementary school’s teacher, the student has to learn how to teach English at least. To improve the quality of the classes, teachers should set the goal clearly. It is not different among these teachers. To shorten preparing the classes, they should set the same goals.

3. Assesment : This article is useful because it shows me the role of teaching. To tell about team teaching, I should know about the roles. The goal of this artice is to tell each role and the relationship.

4. Reflection : The article is related to my research. There are great differences between each of the three teacher roles. Team teaching has a lot of style like ALT and HRT, JTE and HRT, and ALT, HRT and JTE. Each role is different from each group. I have to know about various roles. The article shows me that kind of things, so this article is helpful.

Annotated Bibliography3

  1. Reference :MARCHESSEAU Gerard, (2016). Effective Team Teaching Using the Presentation, Practice and Production Method, CiNii Article., Naruto English Studies (26), 41-50
  2. Summary:The  Presentation, Practice, Production (PPP) Method is useful for team teaching. In the Presentation, JTE and ALT have a conversation related to the task. Next, in the Practice, the important element is that students are aiming at producing the correct answer. Lastly, in the Production, real communication is conducted. ALT can join easily in the PPP method. For example, modeling the language and the dialog, and communication with students.
  3. Assessment : This article is a useful for me because this article show me an example of team teaching. I want to know about the effective team teaching ways, so this paper is related. The goal of this article is that the PPP method can be an effective solution of the problem of TT.
  4. Reflection : This research is related to my research. I would like to know about the example of team teaching, and moreover, the important point like the role of JTE and ALT. Until my last blog, I searched about the problems of the teachers. Between ALT and JTE, there are a lot of problems. For example, they don’t have much time, and JTE has less ability of English. On the other hand, this paper shows me one of the solutions. Therefore the article help me to answer research question.

Annotated Bibliography2

1.Reference : Frances S. and Keiko S., (2018). Teacher’s Attitude to Team Teaching in Japanese elementary Schools, Jalt-publications., (1), 23-26

2. Summary:Team Teaching has some advantages. Those are encouraging cross-cultural understanding, enabling effective presentation of language content and on-the-job training. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages like causing stress for teachers. In Japan, team teaching is taught by ALT, HRT and JTE. ALTs have to go many schools to teach and HRTs have to teach other subjects, so they are very busy. They don’t have much time to prepare to the classes. Despite of challenges, ALTs, HRTs and JTEs work well together and communicate better.

3. Assessment : This article is a little useful for me because this article show me some advantages of team teaching. I was surprised at that HRTs are important to teach English. Some of them are not English teacher, so its ability is not good. However, students who don’t like English watch the communication among ALT, JTE and HRT. They can know they don’t have to be a perfect English speaker, and have a confidence. I think this thought is important.

4. Reflection : This research is related to my research. I would like to know effective team teaching ways in elementary school. On my last blog, I could know about the problems in team teaching, and now, I could know about the reality of team teaching. For example, the role of each teacher. This paper was written in 2018, so I could know about the recent data.  Therefore, this article is helpful for me.

Lesson20 : Annotated Bibliography

1. Reference : Kano A., Sonoda, A., Schultz, D., Usukura, A., Suga, K., & Yasu, Y., (2016). Barriers to effective team teaching with ALTs, Focus on the learner. Tokyo: JALT., (1), 74-81

2. Summary:Assistant language teachers (ALT) in Japan have been involved and have played important role in Japanese English education for many years. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and technology (MEXT) reported that 15,432 ALTs taught in Japanese public schools in 2013. Based on questionnaires for 1,545 ALTs, issues that hinder effective team teaching with ALTs are also discussed. Questionnaires results suggest that the conditions for ALTs in elementary and junior high schools were quite different. In elementary school, teachers have multiple subjects to teach, then they don’t have time to prepare for classes. On the other hand, junior high school teachers are under pressure for high school entrance exam. In order for team teaching to be successful, it is imperative that JTEs be given time for training and preparation with ALTs. One solution is to employ skilled Japanese teachers of English without licenses.

3. Assessment : This article is a little useful for me because this article show to make effective team teachings. I would like to know ways and example for effective team teaching. This source is reliable because the references are shown, and many researchers take part in this thesis.

4. Reflection : This research is related to my research. I would like to know effective team teaching ways in elementary school, but I have to know about the situation in junior high school to compare. I have to know not only ways and example but also difficulties between JTE and ALT. Classes are made both of them. Therefore, this article is helpful for me.

Lesson 19: A list of sources

1.  Akiko Kano, Sophia University Junior College Division; Atsuko Sonoda, Sophia University; Daniel Schultz, Shizuoka Salesio; Ayano Usukura, Sophia University; Kiyotaka Suga, Sophia University; Yuriko Yasu, Hitotsubashi University: Barriers to Effective Team Teaching with ALTs : 2016

http://jalt-publications.org/node/4/articles/5367-barriers-effective-team-teaching-alts

2.  町田 智久 , 高橋 規子, 黒川 美喜子 : ティーム・ティーチングを生かした学級担任の基礎的 英語力向上の取組み : 2017

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jesjournal/17/03/17_102/_article/-char/ja/

3.  Okumura, Shinji : Homeroom Teachers or Specialist Teachers?: Considerations for the Workforce for Teaching English as a Subject at Elementary Schools in Japan : 2017

4.  Koji Igawa : EFL teachers’ views on team-teaching: in the case of Japanese secondary school teachers : 2008

https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110007073811

5.  Hashizume Mari : ティーム活動としてのティームティーチング : ティーム運営を円滑にするための一提案 : 2010

https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110008922814

Lesson 17: Resarch Topic

  My reserach topic is “What is the most effective way to use ALT in elementary school?”

  I want to be an English teacher in elementary school because students begin to learn English in early ages and they may stumble in English. I want them to know English is fun and it is the only way to tell people about the information, and to like English.

  I am studying how to teach English in my university and I cannot think of the effective way of how to use ALT in classes. In elementary school, they learn the way to use a sentence in a specific situation. They don’t learn grammar. It is a feature in elementary school, I think. It is important for me to know how to entertain students using English.

  In my memory, when I was an elementary student, I remember I did many activities with ALT and it was so fun. I came to like English, but some friends didn’t come to like English. If I am an English teacher, I want all my students to like English. I think ALT is important because of making the environment like country spoken in English, knowing their cultures, and improving student’s pronunciation. Students in Japan learn English as a foreign language. You cannot listen to English in daily life. On the other hand, students in Singapore, India and Germany learn English as a second language. Japanese don’t have a lot of opportunity to use English, so I think this is the reason some students doesn’t like English. I have thought it is meaningless to learn English in Japan because I don’t have a chance to use English in Japan. Teachers have to make chance to use English in classes with ALT. I use ALT as a model of conversation in trial class. I want to know other ways.

  That’s why I chose this topic.